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power supply.  Hence a charged third rail or a costly overhead power supply may be unnecessary, thereby
simplifying the whole infrastructure.
Higher speed trains could also use the hybrid tyre structure, using steel tyres for high-speed services on separate
lines with the pneumatic tyres only being used when changing lines on the slower INITIATE infrastructure.
Over the longer term it would be beneficial to segregate high-speed passenger and INITIATE lines so they do
not interact.
  However, it is suggested that the future of high-speed passenger transport could be better served
by using a MAGLEV
type system, which is entirely separate from INITIATE. In addition this could achieve
the speeds to compete with short haul air travel for which environmental alternatives are very limited.
Figure 32 Transition between rail and INITIATE system
It is possible to create a hybrid rail ‘road’ infrastructure by using both pneumatic and steel tyres on the vehicle
axles.  The transition between rail and INITIATE requires a ramp that gradually lifts the steel tyres off the rails
when moving from rail to INITIATE or vice versa.  This type of system is useful for intercontinental rail
stretches were the predominant losses are due to rolling resistance.  The pneumatic tyres would be used to steer
between rail lines at junctions as in figure 29 thereby eliminating the need for rail points/switches.
Summary:  advantages of INITIATE
using electricity as the primary power source for nearly all public and freight transport reduces CO2 and has
the potential to attain near zero carbon emissions for both freight and passenger transport
trucks and passenger vehicles use electric power thereby reducing air pollution and  improving air quality
63 “The precedent for high-speed rail in the a segregated self-contained system from end to end...They would require the same
expensive work in and around stations that maglev needs” Professional Engineering june 24 2009
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